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  1. Chemical elements listed by their presence in human body
  2. Expertise. Insights. Illumination.
  3. Periodic Table of Elements
  4. The chemical elements of the periodic table sorted by boiling point

And when electricity is passed through a tubeful, they emit garish colours; the lights that became synonymous with Las Vegas and other urban centres. Mendeleev had only 61 known elements at the time to sort, but by the early years of the 20th century we had identified 85 of these fundamental building blocks of the universe, all falling neatly into place in the framework.

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These are all naturally occurring elements, and chemists were able to discover and isolate them by studying a wide variety of different minerals from around the world, like elemental prospectors hunting out new finds. But since the mids chemists have learned to control nuclear reactions to generate their own elements in effect, achieving transmutation and the dreams of the alchemists. So far, 24 elements have been artificially crafted; extending the bottom row of the periodic table with new creations.

These elements do not exist naturally on Earth — their atomic nuclei are so swollen and unstable that they rapidly undergo radioactive decay or nuclear fission to break down again to other elements. The last, element , was only formally named in November oganesson.

Chemical elements listed by their presence in human body

Scientists are now contemplating a bold prospect: starting a whole new, eighth row of the periodic table and entering completely uncharted territory right at the extremities of the chemical world. These synthetic elements have no applications — they can only ever be made in absolutely trace amounts, and they rapidly decay — but concern is mounting about the growing scarcity of many exotic elements that have become utterly critical to the workings of our modern world. Our repertoire has begun to diversify over the past century or so, with the widespread use of aluminium and other new metals.

But in the past few decades the number of different metals we wield in our technological society has absolutely exploded. A modern smartphone contains more than 30 different elements. These include carbon and hydrogen in the plastic casing, silicon for the microchip wafers, and copper wiring and gold contacts.

But there are also small amounts of a large number of other metals, each exploited for its own particular electronic properties, or for the tiny, powerful magnets used in the speaker and vibration motor. This means that if you own a smartphone, you have in your pocket a substantial fraction of all the stable elements of the periodic table.

So too do the high-performance alloys used in the turbines of a power station or aircraft jet engine, or the reaction-accelerating catalysts that we use in industrial chemistry for refining oil, producing plastics or synthesising modern medicinal drugs. Yet most of us have never even heard of many of these critical metals — elements with exotic names like tantalum, yttrium or dysprosium.

The concern is that unlike widespread resources like iron or nitrogen, several of these elements crucial to the modern world may become prohibitively scarce.

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These have become known as the endangered elements. In response to the Mendeleev anniversary, the European Chemical Society EuChemS has released a version of the periodic table see above to highlight the elements that are most at risk over the coming decades.

Helium, for example is considered to be under serious threat in the next years. It is the second most abundant element in the universe, but preciously rare on Earth because it is light enough to simply escape from the top of our atmosphere. The helium we do use is effectively mined from deep underground, usually along with natural gas, as it is produced as radiation particles from the decay of elements like uranium.

Helium is very useful — as a cooling liquid for the superconducting magnets in hospital MRI scanners, for example, or as an extremely light gas for weather balloons and airships. But once it leaks into the air it is lost for ever, and there are concerns over meeting supply in the future.

Periodic Table of Elements

With this perspective, its frivolous use in party balloons seems almost painfully wasteful. The lowest-priced item that has been used or worn previously. The item may have some signs of cosmetic wear, but is fully operational and functions as intended.

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The chemical elements of the periodic table sorted by boiling point

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Sorting the Elements The Periodic Table at Work Physical Science Lets Explore Science

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